RNA Processing I

RNA Splicing part 1

Take a look at
this video which is presented by Cold Spring Harbor Lab, where I used to work years ago and where some of the work I discussed today was done.
The parts of the mRNA that are removed and discarded are called "introns," while the parts that are maintained in the final, mature mRNA are called exons. The exons include the portion that codes for the protein, as well as other regulatory sequences both before and after the "coding" region. As the video describes, there are complexes of proteins and RNA that do the splicing. The whole complex is called the "Spliceosome." The components include the generically named "small nuclear RNAs" which assemble with proteins to form "
Small Nuclear Ribonuclear Proteins," or "snurps."
The story of how and why this happens is one of my favorite topics. We will discuss this more later.

RNA Processing

processing1All Most of what I’ll be talking about here occurs specifically in eukaryotes.
As usual, most images are from Wikicommons.
Following transcription, the “pre-mRNA” must be processed on its way out of the nucleus to the cytoplasm.
First, notice that the sequence that made up the promotor does not end up in the pre-mRNA. This is a general theme: With each step in the DNA→RNA→Protein pathway, the information needed to specify regulation of each step generally is lost as we go to the next step. This makes sense, since it is no longer needed. Jerry had the clever realization of that fact today in class.

Poly-A tail and GTP cap.

This addresses two issues: what is the "stop transcription signal" and how do we protect both ends of the mRNA from being rapidly broken down?
When the RNA polymerase reaches the end of the sequence that’s supposed to be transcribed, it hits a signal called the “polyadenylation signal.” This is the "stop transcription signal," but also results in something else happening. The sequence in the DNA (coding strand) is 5'-AATAAA. Of course, the polymerase is reading the template strand, so you could say the “signal” really is 3' TTTATT. The sequence varies a fair bit. This signals the RNA polymerase to leave the DNA. The sequence now in the pre mRNA (AAUAAA, or something similar) recruits a protein complex that will cleave the mRNA near the 3' end and an enzyme called PAP, for Poly Adenyl Polymerase, uses ATP to add a long series of A’s to the end of the mRNA. These A’s, and there may be hundreds of them, are NOT encoded anywhere. This is the reason there was a 3' extension at the end of the mRNA in the picture today. To be fair, the researchers already knew about this and it is part of how they oriented themselves on the DNA/RNA duplex).
The utility of the tail seems to be in recruiting several poly-A binding proteins that protect the mRNA from nucleases that degrade it, facilitate the next steps in processing, the transport of the mRNA out of the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and regulation of translation.
Some prokaryotes do a version of poly-A tail also. But, again, most of this applies to eukaryotes.
The other initial change is the addition of the GTP cap. Actually, it’s a modified G with a methyl group on position 7 of the base, cleverly called 7-methyl GTP. Wiki has a
short discussion of the mechanism of transfer. There is a specific enzyme that does the capping and the cap looks something like this:

Note the “inverted” 5'-5' link. The cap structure also protects the end of the mRNA from degradation.
RNA splicing:

The final processed mRNA might look something like this:

processed Transcript
It comprises the coding sequence, the cap, the 5' and 3' “untranslated region” (UTR) and the poly-A tail. I think all the names are pretty self-explanatory. The 5' UTR, in particular, will contain sequences that contribute to regulating translation. Only the green stretch above will make it into the protein.