Acids and Bases

This is a bare-bones outline. Please check out chapter four of you book, pages 163-170, for more. Read More…

Reactions in solution 1

Reactions in solution 1

We are going to be looking at reactions in aqueous solutions (in water). The reason for this is that in order for a reaction to occur, the atoms, molecules and ions have to be able to interact with each other. They can do this if they are in either liquid or gaseous phase, but it is harder for this to happen if the compounds in question are in solid phase. While you can have solutions of solids, liquids or gases, but we will speak almost entirely on liquids. By convention, we call the thing that is present in greater concentration the "solvent" (this is the thing doing the dissolving) and the thing that is dissolved in it is called the "solute" (this is the thing dissolved).
here are the pages from the white board today.


The definition is functional: a solution that conducts electricity. In practice, this means that there are ions in solution, as opposed to molecules, since it is the presence of positive and negative ions that allows conductivity. Any electrolyte must involve some ions separating from each other. If a compound produces a lot of ions in solutions, such as when an ionic compound like NaCl dissolves, it is a strong electrolyte. Things that ionize only a little, like weak acids, will be weak conductors. Weak electrolytes, weak acids and weak conductors should be linked in your mind. A strong acid results in a low pH and will be good a conductor. Strong and weak bases will be analogous.

Solutions of ionic compounds in water are not "molecules" in solution, but were rather the separate ions of the compound. If an ionic compound dissolves, it does so by separating into its component ions which are "hydrated," or surrounded by water molecules. The partially negative oxygen crowds around the positive ion and the partially positive Hydrogens crowds around the negative ion. Solubility implies that the condition of hydration is lower-energy for that compound than the crystal. If the bonds between the ions is too strong, the compound will not be soluble, because the water cannot break the bonds.

What types of reactions can we follow?

There are a few we will consider:
  1. Precipitation reactions: In these, two solutions of ions are mixed. When the cation of one compound interacts with the anion of the other, the bonds of this new compound are too strong for the water to keep in solution, and the new solid precipitates.
  2. Acid-base reactions: in these, you mix the acid and base, which will result in a solution of intermediate pH. The product of these is generally water and some soluble salt.
  3. Oxidation/reduction reactions. These involve the trading of electrons, and are most notable in that they are the underlying chemistry of batteries and you.

Net ionic reactions:

We write equations usually as what we call balanced molecular reactions. For example

2 (aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq) 2AgCl (s) + Mg(NO3)2 (aq)

In this notation, the small "s" in parentheses is "solid" and the "aq" is the aqueous form. But, we know that there are not molecules in solution, they are ions. So we can write the "complete ionic reaction:

2+ + 2Cl- + 2Ag+ + 2NO3+ 2AgCl(s) + Mg2+ + 2NO3+

Notice that we do not separate the AgCl because it is not aqueous. It is solid. When we look at this, the NO
3+ and the Mg2+ are the same on each side. By the rules of algebra, we can remove them. These ions are considered the "spectator ions," because they do not participate in the reaction.
After we remove the spectator ions, we have the net ionic reaction. That is the reaction written from the perspective of the things that actually change, is:
+ + Cl- AgCl (s)
You may note that I have removed the coefficient "2" from the net ionic reaction. That is the correct way to write it. The net ionic equation is often the one we will use because it is the simple expression of what happens.
Precipitation How do you know what precipitates and what does not? Here is a link to the solubility chart we use.
Okay, so some memorization may be necessary here. Wikipedia also has a
good chart. But, let's try to keep memorization to a minimum. Also, you will do some experiments that address this. You will look at solubility of various compounds, and find, for example, that all the salts of alkali metals are easily soluble. Also, that salts of the metals in the alkaline earth column are less soluble, but BaCl2 for example, is more soluble than CaCl2.

Limiting Reactant

The answers will be below. Consider the following equation.
5H12 + O2 --> CO2 + H2O
First you have to balance that equation. Now, imagine I mix 5.45g of C
5H12 and 11.42g of O2 How many grams of water will I make? And which ingredient is left over AND how much of that in grams is left?

Answers 1C5H12 + 8O2 --> 5CO2 + 6H2O C5H12 is 72.15 g/mol water is at 18.02g/mol O2 is 32g/mol For C5H12, 5.45g x 1mol/72.15=0.0755mol 11.42g of O2 is 0.3569mol. You clearly have more O2 than C5H12. However, you don't have 8x as much. In other words, for 0.0755 mol of C5H12 you would need 0.604mol. You don't have that, so Oxygen is limiting. So, for 0.3569 mol of oxygen, you would use 1/8 that in C5H12 or 0.0446 mol. To answer the last part first, that means you would have left 0.0755-0.0446 mol of C5H12 which is 0.309 mol or 2.23g left over. For water, you have 0.3569 mol O2 x 6 mol H2O/8molO2 x 18.02g H2O/mol for 4.82g H2O.

Percent Composition

This contains instructions for determining empirical formula from percent composition. Also there is a stoichiometry problem for practice. Read More…

The Mole

Introduction to the concept of the Mole (mol). It's just a unit of stuff…like a dozen, but bigger. Read More…