Science is a Process, not an Object.

Advanced Honors Biology

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Enzyme Cofactors

Many enzymes use "cofactors" to help carry out their function. The one above is a "Heme." We will see a lot of these and similar structures. The ring is called a porphyrin ring. A heme is a porphyrin ring with an iron in it. The iron can carry oxygen molecules. We discussed hemoglobin earlier. That protein carries oxygen in your blood. Or, to be more correct, that protein carries a 4 heme groups, each of which carries an iron, each of which carries oxygen.
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Intro to Enzyme Kinetics

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Enzymes really are at the heart of how our bodies work. The brief definition is a "bio-catalyst." These are almost always proteins. They lower activation energy of a particular reaction and as such speed it up, both in the forward and backward direction. Almost all enzymes will be able to work either "backwards" or "forwards." Some are effectively one-directional because of large negative delta G0, for example involving ATP hydrolysis. But, even most of these can be reversed.
Enzyme function requires particular structures. Structures of proteins can be altered by the binding of other proteins or other smaller molecules, or the addition of a phosphate to the enzyme at a specific point, or the local pH or charge distribution…so, every step of enzyme function can be regulated.
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Enolase detail

I thought getting into the mechanism…even just the idea of a mechanism…would be useful. This is a bit of a deep dive into the mechanism of enolase in glycolysis. This enzyme catalyzes the step right before pyruvate kinase, the second "pay-off" or substrate-level phosphorylation step.
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Energy

In some sense, all science comes down to understanding energy. If someone ever asks you why something happens, you can answer: "The second law of thermodynamics." It's never wrong, but also may not be very helpful unless you can make the connection to more local causes. This is the beginning of the discussion, with a biological theme.
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