Science is a Process, not an Object.

Advanced Honors Biology

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Cell Cycle

This is a brief introduction the cell cycle. As we discussed on Thursday, there are some minimal things we know have to go on.
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Signaling Introduction

We will go over a brief primer of signaling. I want everyone to have the tools to read some of what they are working on as well as providing the rest of the class with the tools to understand.
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Enzyme Cofactors

Many enzymes use "cofactors" to help carry out their function. The one above is a "Heme." We will see a lot of these and similar structures. The ring is called a porphyrin ring. A heme is a porphyrin ring with an iron in it. The iron can carry oxygen molecules. We discussed hemoglobin earlier. That protein carries oxygen in your blood. Or, to be more correct, that protein carries a 4 heme groups, each of which carries an iron, each of which carries oxygen.
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Enolase detail

I Thought I would take a minute to talk about a reaction mechanism. This is not something on which I would test you. However, I thought getting into the mechanism…even just the idea of a mechanism…would be useful.
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Intro to Enzyme Kinetics

Enzymes really are at the heart of how our bodies work. The brief definition is a "bio-catalyst." These are almost always proteins. They lower activation energy of a particular reaction and as such speed it up, both in the forward and backward direction. Almost all enzymes will be able to work either "backwards" or "forwards." Some are effectively one-directional because of large negative delta G0, for example involving ATP hydrolysis. But, even most of these can be reversed.
Enzyme function requires particular structures. Structures of proteins can be altered by the binding of other proteins or other smaller molecules, or the addition of a phosphate to the enzyme at a specific point, or the local pH or charge distribution…so, every step of enzyme function can be regulated.
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