Science is a Process, not an Object.

Advanced Honors Biology

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Respiration

The diagram contains sort of the overview of what happens. Most bio classes start out with glycolysis. This is not like most biology classes.
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Intro to Enzyme Kinetics

Enzymes really are at the heart of how our bodies work. The brief definition is a "bio-catalyst." These are almost always proteins. They lower activation energy of a particular reaction and as such speed it up, both in the forward and backward direction. Almost all enzymes will be able to work either "backwards" or "forwards." Some are effectively one-directional because of large negative delta G0, for example involving ATP hydrolysis. But, even most of these can be reversed.
Enzyme function requires particular structures. Structures of proteins can be altered by the binding of other proteins or other smaller molecules, or the addition of a phosphate to the enzyme at a specific point, or the local pH or charge distribution…so, every step of enzyme function can be regulated.
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Signaling Introduction

We will go over a brief primer of signaling. I want everyone to have the tools to read some of what they are working on as well as providing the rest of the class with the tools to understand.
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Enzyme Cofactors

Many enzymes use "cofactors" to help carry out their function. The one above is a "Heme." We will see a lot of these and similar structures. The ring is called a porphyrin ring. A heme is a porphyrin ring with an iron in it. The iron can carry oxygen molecules. We discussed hemoglobin earlier. That protein carries oxygen in your blood. Or, to be more correct, that protein carries a 4 heme groups, each of which carries an iron, each of which carries oxygen.
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Enolase detail

I thought getting into the mechanism…even just the idea of a mechanism…would be useful. It turns out I posted this earlier in the year when we were first looking at enzymes. But, now that we are further along in the year and we are looking at the role of enolase in glycolysis, I thought I would repost it. This enzyme catalyzes the step right before pyruvate kinase, the second "pay-off" or substrate-level phosphorylation step.
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